Lancia pioneered the V engine design, producing the first V6 as well as the first V4s. Several different V4 families were produced from the 1920s through 1960s.
The first V4 was used in the Lambda from 1922 through 1931. It was a narrow-angle aluminum design. All three displacements shared the same long 120 mm stroke, and all were SOHC designs with a single camshaft serving both banks of cylinders.
- 2119 cc (75 mm), 49 hp (36.5 kW) at 3250 rpm
- 2370 cc (79.37 mm), 59 hp (44 kW) at 3250 rpm
- 2568 cc (82.55 mm), 69 hp (51.5 kW) at 3500 rpm
The Lambda engine was updated for the Artena. Bore was set at 82.55 mm as in the 2.6 L Lambda, but stroke was reduced to a more conventional 90 mm. Total displacement was 1927 cc, with 55 hp (41 kW) produced at 4000 rpm.
An all-new V4 was designed for the Augusta. Produced from 1934 through 1938, the Augusta's engine displaced just 1196 cc with a 69.85 mm bore and 78 mm stroke. Power output was 35 hp (26 kW) at 4000 rpm.
The engine was redesigned again for 1936's Aprilia. The first-series cars used a 1352 cc version with a 72 mm bore and 82 mm stroke. Output was 47 hp (35 kW) at 4300 rpm.
A second series was unveiled for 1939 with an enlarged 1486 cc engine. It did not share its predecessor's dimensions, with bore now at 74.61 mm and stroke at 85 mm. Power output was nearly the same at 48 hp (36 kW).
A small V4 powered the compact 1939 Ardea. It was a 20° narrow-angle engine displacing just 903 cc, the smallest V4 ever built. Bore and stroke were new again at 65 mm by 68 mm, and output was just 28.8 hp (21.5 kW).
The V4 returned after the war with the 1953 Appia. It featured an even narrower 10° cylinder bank and just 1090 cc of displacement. An initial 38 hp (28 kW) of power grew to 43 hp (32 kW) in 1956. 48 hp (36 kW) was available in 1959.
Lancia's final V4 series were used in the Fulvia. Designed by Zaccone Mina, it used a narrow angle (13°) and was mounted well forward at a 45° angle. The engine was a true DOHC design with a one camshaft operating all intake valves and another operating all exhaust valves.
Displacement began at just 1091 cc with 59 hp (44 kW) with a 72 mm bore and 67 mm stroke. A higher (9.0:1) compression ratio raised power to 71 hp (53 kW) soon after.
The engine was bored to 6 mm to enlarge displacement to 1216 cc for the HF model. This, and some tuning, raised output to 80 to 88 hp (60 to 66 kW).
The engine was reengineered with a slightly narrower bank angle and longer (69.7 mm) stroke for 1967. Three displacements were produced: 1199 cc (74 mm bore), 1231 cc (75 mm bore), and 1298 cc (77 mm bore). The latter engine is most common, with the former only sold in Greece. The American-spec 1.3 L produced 87 hp (65 kW) and was described as "highly tuned" by Road & Track at the time.
The engine was redone again for a new HF with an even-narrower angle (11° now) and longer 75 mm stroke for its final incarnation. A bore of 82 mm gave it a displacement of 1584 cc, and power shot up to 114 to 132 hp (85 to 98 kW) depending on tune.